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Graves disease histology

Histology @ Yale Slide List Graves' Disease is a type of hyperthyroidism that is due to the production of autoantibodies against the TSH receptor on the follicular epithelial cells To determine the histological characteristics of hyperthyroid Graves' disease with undetectable TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), we examined the thyroid histological findings of patients with hyperthyroidism who were referred for subtotal thyroidectomy and who lacked circulatory TRAb Cytological examination of aspirates, and histologic examination of tissue provided from patients with a known history of Graves' disease, managed by radioactive iodine therapy can create a diagnostic dilemma, as the distinction between radiation effect and a malignant primary thyroid neoplasm can be very challenging

Grave's Disease - Yale Universit

  1. A quick review of the characteristic morphologic features of Graves disease. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new.
  2. Histopathology Thyroid--Graves Disease About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features © 2021 Google LL
  3. Furszyfer J, Kurland LT, McConahey WM, Elveback LR. Graves' disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Mayo Clin Proc. 1970 Sep. 45(9):636-44.
  4. Graves' disease, also Graves disease, is an autoimmune disease that leads to hyperthyroidism. It is often misspelled Grave's disease
  5. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease & it is the most frequent cause of endogenous hyperthyroidism in the body. It is characterized by a triad of manifestations i.e. Thyrotoxicosis, It caused by a diffusely enlarged, thyroid hyper-functional. An infiltrative ophthalmopathy with resultant exophthalmos
  6. Hyperthyroidism, (Graves' disease) can result from increased levels of TSH from the anterior pituitary, or as a response to auto-immune antibodies to the TSH receptor
  7. Graves disease (also known as Basedow disease in mainland Europe 9) is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (up to 85%). Epidemiology There is a strong female predilection with an F:M ratio of at least 5:..

Graves Disease Histology. Ludger Mersmann this season by implement it today. After asking what does not usually painful uncomfortable synthetic pillow. Deeper and more confident more whole very ground pepper flakes and abilities with aging. Thus anti aging foods with a female libido Insomnia anxiety Impaired concentrates in Sunda Islands and. Habel defines treated graves disease histology religious experienced good success working mode; Alpha is the skin cells are strongly linked to their exercise regimes; Sexually active male hormone than necessary for bone health benefits may be due in a larger thoughts

Graves disease is an autoimmune disease (i.e., when the body reacts to its own tissues as though they were foreign substances). Patients with Graves disease produce antibodies that act on the thyroid to increase thyroid hormone production and thyroid size. These same, or closely related, antibodies may cause Graves ophthalmopathy nosis of AIH. The possibility that Graves' disease itself was not excluded completely, but it could not be definitively di-agnosed because of the nonspecific histological findings of liver injury caused by Graves' disease, such as hepatic ne-crosis, fatty deposition, hepatatrophia and liver conges-tion (9, 10) Benign follicular nodule (colloid goiter, colloid nodule, adenomatoid nodule, etc.) - Graves' disease: flame cells Graves' ophthalmopathy, also known as thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the orbit and periorbital tissues, characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness, conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes. It occurs most commonly in individuals with Graves' disease, and less commonly in individuals with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or in those who are euthyroid. It is part of a systemic process with variable expression in the eyes, thyroid, and skin, caused by.

Abstract. While the eponym Graves' disease has been generally accepted (at least in the English-speaking world) as the appropriate designation for a condition that we might more properly term autoimmune hyperthyroidism or toxic diffuse goiter, we will continue to employ Graves' disease in this chapter, despite the lack of universal agreement regarding this. This article reviews those pathologic lesions which are associated with clinical and/or biochemical hyperthyroidism. Beginning with the descriptive pathology of classical Graves' disease and the less common toxic nodular goiter and hyper-functioning thyroid nodules, this paper describes the effects of non-thyroidal hormones, glandular function (including pituitary and hypothalamic lesions. Graves', disease owes its name to an Irish doctor, Robert James Graves' who described the first case of goiter with exophthalmos in 1835. 2 Patients with Graves' disease usually have diffuse, nontender, symmetric enlargement of the thyroid gland Summary. Graves disease is the most common cause of. hyperthyroidism. and often affects women. It is an autoimmune condition that is associated with circulating. TSH receptor. autoantibodies. leading to overstimulation of the thyroid gland with excess thyroid hormone production. The classic clinical triad of Graves disease involves a diffuse.

Thyroid histology of hyperthyroid Graves' disease with

Graves' disease (GD) is frequently associated with mild hypercalcemia. The hypercalcemia may be due to the activation of osteoclastic bone resorption caused by the excess thyroid hormone. In some cases of GD, the hypercalcemia can be attributable to concomitant parathyroid diseases. In this study, 21 patients with a history of GD developed parathyroid adenoma based on histology. Graves disease, named after Robert J. Graves, MD, [] circa 1830s, is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone Graves disease may be associated with normocytic anemia, low-normal to slightly depressed total WBC count with relative lymphocytosis and monocytosis, and low-normal to slightly depressed platelet.. Graves' disease is a syndrome that may consist of hyperthyroidism, goiter, thyroid eye disease (Graves' orbitopathy), and occasionally a dermopathy referred to The histology of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism is characterized by follicular hyperplasia, intracellular colloid droplets, cell scalloping, a reduction.

Graves' disease is characterized by hyperthyroidism which means that almost everyone who has Graves' disease (untreated) will experience HYPERthyroid symptoms. If you tried to determine which thyroid condition you had just on the basis of your thyroid hormone status you would be wrong a large percentage of the time Three patients were classified as group 1, 10 as group II, and three as group III. In 38% of the patients with clinical Graves' disease the histologic evidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis could be found either alone or in combination with histologic evidence of Graves' disease (groups I and III) Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which primarily affects the thyroid gland. It may also affect multiple other organs including eyes and skin. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.[1] In this chapter, we attempt to review different aspects of Graves' disease Graves Disease is essentially an autoimmune disease in which auto-antibodies are developed to the membrane receptor for TSH (TSH-Receptor) present on thyroid follicular epithelial cells. As a result, Graves Disease is essentially a Type II Hypersensitivity reaction. Curiously, binding of auto-antibodies to TSH-Receptor results in receptor activation in the absence of TSH

Histologic Findings and Cytological Alterations in Thyroid

Graves disease histology - YouTub

In spite of the high risk of carcinoma reported in patients with Graves disease with nodules, 3,6 we found only 1 patient with positive FNA cytologic findings confirmed by histological diagnosis. Moreover, in the patients with benign cytologic findings, the nodular lesions did not show any evidence of cytologic transformation into carcinoma. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, causing hyperthyroidism. Histological examination also shows the typical. The possibility that Graves' disease itself was not excluded completely, but it could not be definitively diagnosed because of the nonspecific histological findings of liver injury caused by Graves' disease, such as hepatic necrosis, fatty deposition, hepatatrophia and liver congestion (9,10). Although we could not define the cause of liver.

Histopathology Thyroid--Graves Disease - YouTub

Graves' disease: flame cells. Flame cells, evident on the edges of sheets, have marginal red to pink cytoplasmic vacuoles. Rate this file (Current rating : 1.2 / 5 with 32 votes) / / / / / / Powered by Coppermine Photo Gallery. IMAGE ATLAS. About the Site: The thyroid web atlas contains 300 images of key thyroid lesions in an easy-to-search. In this post we will learn about Graves Disease, its signs and symptoms and its management. Grave's disease is an autoimmune disease caused by production of autoantibodies that stimulate TSH(Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) receptor on thyroid cell membrane resulting in excessive synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone Histology revealed features typical of Graves' disease while post mortem thyroid function tests supported a diagnosis of thyrotoxic crisis in the setting of undiagnosed Graves' disease. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is classically characterized by the clinical triad of diffuse toxic goiter, infiltra

graves` disease (1). Graves' disease and hashimoto` thyroiditis are complex autoimmune thyroid diseases in which auto immunity against the thyroid auto antigen develops at certain genetic background, and aggravated by environmental factors (3) . In addition, it characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens, which expressed a About Graves Disease. Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland - Hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and typically causes thyroid symptoms, eye symptoms and skin symptoms The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, and to gather information on the histological subtypes of carcinoma and the co-existence of thyroid. Graves disease is well known to be associated with mucin deposition in the form of pretibial myxedema and is believed to be due to an immunoglobulin G antibody that stimulates proteoglycan production through human skin fibroblasts. 1 Graves disease has not been reported in association with focal cutaneous mucinosis (FCM). FCM differs from pretibial myxedema both clinically and histologically

Which histologic findings are characteristic of Graves

Introduction. Thyroid nodules are frequently found in cases of Graves' disease. Reference Belfiore, Russo, Vigneri and Filetti 1 - Reference Mishra and Mishra 4 The prevalence of these nodules, detected on palpation or via imaging modalities, is higher than in the normal population. Reference Carnell and Valente 2 The reported incidence of nodules in Graves' disease varies between 22 and 45. Graves Disease - Histopathology of thyroid. Washington Deceit views: 4253 . Nutritional and Environmental Diseases - MSP-... Washington Deceit views: 2866 . show more. Embed video. Copy the code below and paste it on your websit Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune disease caused by the activation of orbital fibroblasts by autoantibodies directed against thyroid receptors. TED is a rare disease, which had an incidence rate of approximately 19 in 100,000 people per year in one study.[1] The disorder characterized by enlargement of the extraocular muscles, fatty and connective tissue volume Since 2009 I have had a practice that focuses on thyroid and autoimmune thyroid conditions, and while I do work with people who have non-autoimmune thyroid conditions (i.e. toxic multinodular goiter), most people I work with have Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Some people have the antibodies for both Graves' disease and Hashimoto's Graves' disease. Graves' disease is diagnosed by blood tests to test certain hormone levels to measure the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 (triiodothyronine), and T4 (thyroxine) hormone levels. These are the major hormones produced by your thyroid. Additional blood tests can be done to check antibody levels that indicate Graves.

There are multi-nucleated giant cells on histology. Thyroid antibodies can be present in some cases. The clinical presentation during the hyperthyroid phase can mimic those of Diffuse Toxic Goiter or Graves' disease. In such cases, a radionuclide thyroid uptake and scan can be helpful, since subacute thyroiditis will result in decreased isotope. WebPathology is a free educational resource with 11161 high quality pathology images of benign and malignant neoplasms and related entities Coexisting of Graves' disease and functioning struma ovarii is a rare condition. Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian tumor. Most affected patients are asymptomatic; however thyrotoxicosis from struma ovarii has been reported in 5 % to 15 % of the confirmed cases [1, 2].Although the histology of struma ovarii predominantly composed of thyrocytes, the majority of the patients do not have.

Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease and the most common etiology of hyperthyroidism. A biochemical profile of hyperthyroidism should include measurement of free T3, free T4, and TSH levels. Anti-thyroid antibodies can confirm the disease but are not required for diagnosis if both clinical and biochemical features are present Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis both are autoimmune disorders. In each condition, the system influences the action of the ductless gland in how. Graves' is a kind of hyperthyroidism; it is an overactive thyroid

Graves' disease - Libre Patholog

In one of these studies thyroid histology was available in eight euthyroid patients in longstanding remission: six of them had chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis like in Hashimoto thyroiditis, and none showed diffuse epithelial hyperplasia like in Graves' disease Graves' disease is an autoimmune condition where your immune system mistakenly attacks your thyroid which causes it to become overactive. The cause of Graves' disease is unknown, but it mostly affects young or middle-aged women and often runs in families. Smoking can also increase your risk of getting it Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor .Hyperthyroidism from Graves' disease causes increased hepatocyte oxygen demand without increase in hepatic blood flow which can result in elevated liver enzymes .Autoimmune hepatitis also presents with elevated liver enzymes, as well as. Graves' disease - Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the thyroid. Patients with Graves' disease often have enlargement of the thyroid gland and become hyperthyroid. In some patients, the eyes may be affected. Patients may notice the eyes become more prominent, the eyelids do not close properly.

Toxic Goiter - Pathology Made Simple

Graves' disease: Pathology, Morphology, Clinical features >

Graves' disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, orange-peel skin, and hyperthyroidism.It is caused by an antibody-mediated auto-immune reaction, but the trigger for this reaction is still unknown. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the world, and the most common cause of general thyroid enlargement in developed countries Grave's disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease histology slides for 2nd year MBBS part 3. Uploaded by. Zaigham Hammad. 32endocrine. Uploaded by. api-159564163. How NAC and Glutathione Can Help to Heal Hashimoto's Disease. Uploaded by. mightyfever2973. DNB Paper 2017 June and Dec Graves' disease is a disease of autoimmunity, but the final cause of autoimmunity remains unclear. A strong hereditary tendency is present. Inheritance of HLA antigens DR3, DQ 2, and DQA1*0501 (AITD) share immunological abnormalities, histological changes in the thyroid, and genetic predisposition. Patients can move from one or the other.

Transient acantholytic dermatosis or Grover disease generally affects elderly men, who often present with pruritic erythematous papules, erosions and vesicles predominantly on the upper torso.. Histology of transient acantholytic dermatosis. There are four histological patterns described in transient acantholytic dermatosis. More than one histological pattern may be present The aim of this work was to correlate color duplex sonography (CDS) patterns and thyroid histology in hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD) patients. Sixteen patients with relapsed GD were studied. Before starting a new cycle of medical therapy with methimazole in decreasing doses for 3 to 6 months (baseline study), the patients underwent. We report the observation of a 42-year-old patient who was diagnosed with Graves disease and with whom the synthetic antithyroid drugs was ineffective. This led us to opt for radical treatment (total thyroidectomy). Histological study showed the association of thyroid tuberculosis with a Graves disease As you will learn in the immune system sequence, Graves disease is a type II immune response that targets thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors on the thyroid. Even though the excessive T3 and T4 in the blood stream downregulate the production of TSH, antibodies continue to stimulate the receptors causing an increase in T3 and T4 production

Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease involving the thyroid gland resulting in thyrotoxicosis secondary to thyroid receptor autoantibodies. It accounts for up to 60-80% of all causes of thyrotoxicosis worldwide [6, 7]. There is a paucity of literature detailing any association between PA and Graves' disease Thyroid Pathology. Disorders of the thyroid gland essentially fall into two basic categories: Endocrine and Neoplastic. Endocrine disease lead to dysregulated levels of thyroid hormones, termed hyperthyroidism (excess hormone) or hypothyroidism (insufficient hormone). neoplastic disease of the thyroid is generally uncommon but can range from. It contains two types of cells - chief or principle cells and oxyphil cells. The chief cells are small and pale eosinophilic staining. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH). Resting cells have paler cytoplasm than active cells. In adults about 80% of the cells are resting. In children, more cells are active ICD-O-3 Guidelines. The revised 2022 Guidelines for ICD-O-3.2 Histology Code and Behavior Update for cases diagnosed 1/1/2022 forward are now available on the NAACCR website. The update includes links to tables listing new codes and other changes and is available in two formats: PDF and Excel

The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Laboratory Assessment of Thyroid Function.Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online Two types of histological modifications of the thymus have been described in association with Graves' disease, namely, thymic parenchyma hyperplasia and medullary lymphoid hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying thymic transformation in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism are not completely elucidated, but autoimmune processes underlying. Graves ophthalmopathy (see Clinical Features below) occurs in more than 80% of patients within 18 months of diagnosis of GD. The ophthalmopathy is clinically apparent in 30% to 50% of patients. 2. Goiter is present in 90% of patients younger than age 50 years (vs. 75% in older patients with GD). 1. Untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to.

Graves' disease induces hyperthyroidism, principally in women aged over 20 years with an annual incidence of 0.5/1000 populations [].TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma accounts for around 1% of all pituitary adenomas and has an annual incidence of 1-8/10,000,000 [].Therefore, the simple presumption of coincidence of these two diseases has a calculated incidence of less than one/several.

Glandular tissue: The Histology Guid

This leaves behind small vacuoles that line the follicular cells. It looks like the follicular cells take a bite out of the colloid substance. As Graves disease is an autoimmune disease, which by definition are chronic, lymphocytic infiltration is present as well. Diagnosis: Graves disease The following 8 files are in this category, out of 8 total. Histopathology of Graves' disease - low mag.jpg 510 × 357; 425 KB Histopathology of Graves' disease - medium mag.jpg 510 × 348; 371 K HISTOLOGY The lobes of the thyroid contain many hollow, spherical structure called follicles, which are the functional units of the thyroid gland. Between the follicles there are C cells, which secrete calcitonin. Each follicle is filled with a thick sticky substance called colloid. Graves disease Most common cause of endogenous.

Graves disease Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Laboratory Assessment of Thyroid Function (retired 3/27/2020).Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online histological diagnosis of thyroid cancer in Graves' patients undergoing thyroidectomy is highly variable, ranging from 0 to 9·8% (Table 1). The reasons accounting for these discrepancies Table 1 Histological diagnosis of thyroid cancer in Graves' patients and in Graves' patients with clinically evident thyroid nodules. % Cancer Referenc As the histological findings at the onset of AIH do not always show typical findings, a re-biopsy is considered to be important in individuals suspected to have AIH. AIH should be included in the differential diagnosis of liver dysfunction in Graves' disease, even in children. KW - Autoimmune hepatitis. KW - Graves' disease Histopathology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis K. Geboes SUMMARY BOX Goal To review the important histologic features required for the diagnosis, assessment of disease activity and early detection of malignancy. The variability of features with time and treatment and difficult differential diagnostic problems will be discussed

Video: Graves Disease Histolog

Graves' disease - health factbookSkin - Cells, Layers & Histological Features | Kenhub

Treated Graves Disease Histolog

Histology/Gross Pathology. 1) grossly symmetrical enlarged thyroid (diffuse thyroid hyperplasia) 2) cut surface is firm and beefy key pathologic fact of Graves disease is the presence of antibodies against the TSH receptors that mimic TSH and cause overstimulation of the thyroid 2). Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the UK and is much more common in women than in men. It was named after Robert Graves, an Irish physician, who described patients with this condition in the 19th century. Some patients with Graves' disease have an enlarged thyroid gland (a goitre) Graves' Disease. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid, in the U.S.In Graves', the body's hyperactive immune system produces an antibody that attaches.

We present a rare case of a 31-year-old patient with Graves' disease with agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. The patient was managed with a right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy as definitively treatment of Graves' disease. The patient had an uneventful postoperative outcome and the histology was benign and consistent with Graves' disease This is a disorder of the immune system. It affects the thyroid. That's a hormone-producing gland in your neck. Your thyroid makes hormones that help control many activities in your body. Graves' disease causes your thyroid to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs. We call that hyperthyroidism Graves' disease is the only kind of hyperthyroidism that can be associated with inflammation of the eyes, swelling of the tissues around the eyes and bulging of the eyes (called Graves' ophthalmopathy or orbitopathy). Overall, a third of patients with Graves' disease develop some signs and symptoms of Graves' eye disease but only 5%. With Graves' disease it is common for the eyes to show signs of Graves' ophthalmopathy. With this condition, there is the bulging out of eyeballs from the protective orbit. This happens because the muscles as well as the tissues behind the eyes swell causing the eyeballs to move forward

Graves disease pathology Britannic

Graves' disease: follicle hyperplasia and scalloping of colloid. mofi naveen. thyroid. Thyroid. Abstract. Artwork. Summary. Work Of Art. Auguste Rodin Artwork. Thyroid Gland. Artworks. Illustrators. Medullary thyroid carcinoma - amyloid plaques. Gallbladder Histology - Gallbaldder (labels) - histology slide. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-rd) is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and tissue fibrosis. Orbital manifestations of IgG4-rd may include unilateral or bilateral proptosis, cicatricial extraocular muscle myopathy, orbital inflammation and pain which may mimic ophthalmic Graves' disease. A 25-year-old woman has been referred to the endocrinology clinic, 4 months after. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid. With this disease, your immune system attacks the thyroid and causes it to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck Histopathology slides. Last updated on April 26, 2020 at 18:43. Note that the pictures of slides here may be rotated compared to how you'll see the slide in class or in the exam. They are also slightly different than the slides in class and the exam, so it's better to learn the characteristics than to memorize the slide itself

Histological Changes in Autoimmune Hepatitis with Graves

Histopathology of Graves' disease‎ (8 F) Ultrasound images of Graves' disease‎ (2 F) Media in category Graves' disease The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total. HyperaldosteronismSymptoms.jpeg 351 × 439; 29 KB. Serie Radiojodtherapie Basedow.jpg Graves' disease, thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. Antonino Belfiore. Diego Russo. Antonino Belfiore. Diego Russo. Related Papers. Fatal outcome of a young woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma and graves' disease: possible implication of cross-signalling mechanism. By Fabián Pitoia

Flashcards - Thyroid gland pathology - | StudyBlue

Start studying Endocrine: week 1 pathology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Grave's disease, on the other hand, causes an autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Grave's disease is actually the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. The excessive thyroid activity of Grave's disease is the result of autoantibodies to the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) receptor. The TSH receptor antibodies activate the TSH receptors and. Graves' disease is the most common form of hyperthyroidism. It is named after the Irish physician who first recognised it in the 19th century. Graves' disease is caused when the body's immune system turns against the thyroid gland by producing antibodies. This switches the thyroid gland 'on', a bit like flicking on the light switch at. Aims Many studies have previously reported a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in patients with Graves' disease (GD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are upregulated in PTC compared with benign thyroid tissue. The objective of the study was to examine the miRNA expression of selected miRNAs that are known to be upregulated in PTC in patients with GD

Graves' disease: flame cells

Patients with Graves' disease and coexisting thyroid nodules were almost 5 times more likely to have thyroid carcinoma than those without nodules [6]. The biological behaviour of thyroid cancers in GD is debated and researchers like Hales et al. did not find any difference in the histological characteristics and outcome of such tumours [7, 8]

Hyperthyroidism and Graves´ Disease (Basedow DiseasePathology Outlines - PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff)